YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE) AS PROBIOTICS OF CHOICE
FOR LAYING CHICKENS
I.P. Ogbuewu and C.A. Mbajiorgu
Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, University of South Africa,
Florida Science Campus, Johannesburg, South Africa
Corresponding author’s e-mail: [email protected]
Antibiotics is included in minute level in chicken ration to promote productivity and physiological well-being. But studies have revealed that incorporation of antibiotics in feed to increase chicken performance causes the emergence of resistant bacteria. Their use in poultry feed lead to accumulation of significant amount of residues in animal products. These normally have led to the stoppage on the use of antibiotics in animal feed by the European Union (EU) in several parts of the world. This stoppage has elicited interest on the use of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a replacement for antibiotics in chicken nutrition. Yeast is abundant in protein (44%) and moderate in other essential nutrients. Information exist that yeast supplementation enhance gut health and feed efficiency in chickens. This paper is an attempt to document all the information on the effect of yeast supplementation on health status, egg production and egg quality in laying chickens as to identify knowledge gap for future research.
Keywords: Probiotics, yeast supplementation, chickens, laying performance, egg quality
The prolonged use of a small dose of antibiotics in livestock and poultry feed has implicated in the host and cross drug resistance (Jones and Ricke 2003). In view of the public health implication of using sub-dose of therapeutic antibiotics in feed calls the search for alternative natural growth stimulants such as yeast (Patterson and Burkholder 2003; Khan and Naz 2013). Studies by Reed and Naodawithana (1999) and McDonald et al. (1988) have shown that yeast is rich in protein and moderate in B-vitamins and trace mineral elements (Table 1). In addition, studies (Haiman and Frank 1994; Yalcin et al. 2014) showed that yeast contains all the essential amino acids needed by chickens for growth and egg production (Table 2). Furthermore, Samanta and Mondal (1988) revealed that dried yeast cell is very high in methionine (2.46%), threonine (3.98%) and tryptophan (0.77%). Results of proximate analysis of yeast showed dried yeast had 95.7% dry matter (DM), 10.7% ash, 48.7% protein, 0.55% crude fat, 0.5% fibre, 35.5% carbohydrates, 5.50% phosphorus, 2.0% potassium and 0.03% chloride (Hamad, 1986). Studies have revealed that S. cerevisiae stimulates appetite (Nahashon et al. 1992) and improve immunity (Toms and Powrie, 2001; Cotter et al., 2002) on layers. In the gut, yeast has been established to reduce the population of pathogenic micro-organisms and decrease pH (Fuller, 1989). Several investigators reported that feeding yeast mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) results to improve immune response in chickens (Raju and Devegowda, 2002; Cotter et al., 2002; Shashidhara and Devegowda 2003) while, yeast culture (YC) inclusion at 0.5 – 1.5 g/kg diet increases shell thickness, yolk weight and reduced egg yolk cholesterol content chickens (Yousefi and Karkoodi 2007). Similar results were obtained by other scientists who reported that YC supplementation increases egg production and weight (Thayer et al. 1975; Liu and Yoon 2002; Tangendjaja and Yoon 2002Yalc?n et al., 2008a; Yalcin et al. 2010), improve feed efficiency (Liu and Yoon, 2002; Tangendjaja and Yoon 2002; Dizaji and Pirmohammadi 2009) and reduced egg yolk cholesterol (Yalcin et al. 2008a) and serum cholesterol cum triglycerides concentration (Jin et al. 1998; Yalcin et al. 2010). Dizaji and Pirmohammadi (2009) noticed reduced egg weights on layers on YC supplementation contrary to the results of other authors (Thayer et al. 1975; Liu and Yoon 2002; Tangendjaja and Yoon 2002; Yalc?n et al. 2008a; Yalcin et al. 2010), while Nursoy et al. (2004) observed no statistical effect of yeast supplementation on egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency in laying chickens. The growing benefits of S. cerevisiae on egg production in chickens are linked to either its direct nutritional effect or its potential to reduce the population of pathogenic microbes in the gut and strengthen the host’s natural body defense (Fuller 1977; Fuller 2001).
The objective of this review was to aggregate all the available information on egg production performance of laying hens fed yeast diets in a single document for easy access by researchers and research end-users as well as to identify knowledge gap for future research.
Table 1 Proximate biochemical and mineral composition of yeast cell wall
Parameters Yalcin et al. (2014) Osman (2010) %
Proximate Dry matter (g/kg) 935.5 98.20%
ME (MJ/kg) 5.17 3276.26 (Kcal/kg)
Crude protein (g/kg) 227.2 38.90
Ether extract (g/kg) 37.4 1.60
Crude fibre (g/kg) 4.3 0.4
Crude ash (g/kg) 64.0 4.87%
Minerals (mg/kg) Calcium 7390 1.0
Phosphorus 5906 0.05
Magnesium 1230 0.4
Sodium 15750 –
Potassium 5829 3.84
Zinc 130 –
Manganese 36 –
Table 2 Amino acid profiles of yeast cell wall
Parameters Free amino acids (g/kg) Total amino acids (g/kg)
Aspartic acid 0.05 16.10
Glutamic acid 1.54 24.40
Serine 0.07 7.04
Histidine 0.02 4.76
Glycine 0.15 11.18
Threonine 0.02 5.31
Arginine 0.07 6.22
Alanine 0.67 13.01
Tyrosine 0.06 7.77
Valine 0.05 12.32
Methionine 0.01 3.96
Phenylalanine 0.06 12.96
Isoleucine 0.02 11.72
Ornithine <0.03 5.76
Leucine 0.03 19.04
lysine 0.02 15.69
Proline 1.00 14.91
Adapted from Yalcin et al. (2014)
Feed intake and nutrient utilization
Studies abound that show the benefit of yeast supplementation on feed conversion ratio (kg feed/kg egg) in layers (Maziar et al. 2007; Songsak et al. 2009; Hassanein and Soliman 2010), weight gain (Sharmah et al. 2001; Yalcin et al. 2008a), energy utilization (Bradley and Savag 1995) and digestion coefficient of crude protein (Soliman 2003). In contrast, Yousefi and Karkoodi (2007) and Yalcin et al. (2014), respectively found that yeast supplementation (0.5 -1.5 g/kg feed) and 1.0 – 4.0 g/kg feed) had similar effect on feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in laying birds. Additionally, Swain et al. (2011) showed that of yeast (0.5 – 2.0%) did not affect feed intake in laying birds which also confirmed the earlier statement of Sehu et al. (1997) that up to 15% of inactivated brewer’s yeast can be added in laying hen diets without adverse effect on feed intake and FCR in quails. Contrary to these results, others have observed noticed that yeast supplementation at 0.2% (Liu and Yoon (2002) and 0.3 -0.6% (Sanaa et al. 2013) reduced feed intake in quails. The disparity on the response of laying birds to varying levels of yeast diets may be linked to yeast type, supplementation rate, duration of feeding, genetic up and environmental differences (Mahdavi et al. 2005).
Egg production and quality
Yousefi and Karkoodi (2007) investigated the dose-related effect of yeast on laying performance traits and observed similar egg production indices and quality at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.15% supplementation levels. This result is in consonance with Yalcin et al. (2008 a, b) who reported similar egg production data in birds on yeast. Chickens fed probiotic yeast supplemented diets have been noticed to produce large egg and yolk (Swain et al. 2011); heavier shell weight, increase shell thickness and reduced yolk cholesterol (Yousefi and Karkoodi 2007; Yalcin et al. 2008a; Swain et al. 2011). The incidences of laying soft shell and broken eggs have recorded in chickens following yeast culture supplementation (Park et al. 2001). Other investigators have also observed increased egg production and egg weight and decreased the concentration of egg yolk in Hyline brown laying aged 22 weeks fed diets containing 0.1-0.4% yeast autolysate (Yalcin et al. 2010). This is similar to the findings of others (Kim et al. 2002; Shivani et al. 2003; Shareef and Al-Dabbagh 2009) who reported that yeast supplementation improves egg production in laying hens. This result is in harmony with Hassanein and Soliman (2010) who reported that yeast improves egg production and quality (egg albumen, egg yolk, and eggshell thickness) in white leghorn layers fed live yeast culture at 0.4% and 0.8%. Similar findings were obtained in egg typed chicken fed yeast diet (Sharmah et al. (2001). Sanaa (2013) evaluated the dose-related effect of yeast supplementation on layers and observed that the group in 0.3% yeast had 4.67% increase in shell thickness and 2.59% reduction in albumen weight. Similarly, Nursoy et al. (2004) recorded an increase in eggshell thickness in laying birds fed S. cerevisiae based diet at 0.8%, while Songsak et al. (2009) observed that addition of cassava yeast probiotic at 1×106, 1×107 and 1×108 microorganism/kg in layer diet for 8 weeks increased egg weight and eggshell thickness and reduced hen day production. However, the observed increase in eggshell thickness of birds fed yeast diet may be due to the ability to enhance calcium (Bradley and Savage 1995) and phosphorus availability (Reed and Naodawithana 1999). In contrast, Sanaa (2013) reported that yeast supplementation at 0.3 and 0.6% in layer diets reduced hen-day production and egg number. Similar results were also recorded by Dizaji and Pirmohammadi (2009) who found that adding yeast inclusion at 0, 200, 300, 400g/ton of diet) for 10 weeks in laying hens aged 46-55 weeks reduced egg weight. The discrepant variations in these studies may be fully explained but can be partly attributed to the strains of birds used, yeast type as well as the rearing environment (Mahdavi et al. 2005).
The problems of skeletal disorders have been well reported in both egg and meat typed chickens reared in a confined setting due to their fast growth and high egg production ability. In both in mammals and avian, bones have been well reported to provide structural and mechanical support as well as a storehouse for calcium and phosphorus among others during metabolism (Mutus et al. 2006). Several investigators suggest that probiotics may enhance bone strength and development in poultry. Mutus et al. (2006) reported the positive effect of probiotic supplementation on properties of the tibial bone in chickens. Plavnik and Scott (1980) reported that addition of 2.5% or 5.0% brewer’s yeast reduces the incidences of leg weakness in meat typed chickens. Better calcium and phosphorus retention and increased bone mineral deposit in the skeleton of chickens fed diet supplemented with probiotics has been reported (Nahashon et al. 1994). Authors have reported the increased thickness of the medial and lateral wall of the tibia, percentage ash, tibiotarsal index and phosphorus content, which are used as an index of bone strength has been reported in birds placed yeast supplemented diets (Mutus et al. 2006). Additionally, probiotic supplementation has been observed to slightly improve the tibia yield stress and modulus of elasticity of birds, which are used to the rigidity of the bones.
Haematology and blood chemistry
Blood indices are used as an index of the health status of laying birds and they are influenced by dietary factors. Studies by Yalcin et al. (2008b) have found that dietary YC supplementation supports serum protein, lipids and aspect of liver enzymes in layers. Similar findings were also reported by Sanaa (2013) and Yalcin et al. (2014) who reported that addition of 0.3% and 0.6% dried yeast in chickens support the production of serum protein, lipids, and aspect of liver enzymes. In similar studies, Wakwak et al. (2003) and Maziar et al. (2007) observed no significant effect of yeast on serum proteins and cholesterol, respectively while inclusion of 0.2% of YC in laying hens ration containing either soybean meal or sunflower meal had comparable serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (Yalcin et al. 2008a), and this implies that there was no deamination of amino acids. This result corroborated Hewida et al. (2011), who reported that YC had a similar influence on serum proteins and serum creatinine. Others studies have noticed the nonsignificant effect of yeast on blood cholesterol in laying hens (Stanley et al. 2004; Bageridizaj et al. 2006; Pinar et al. 2013). A similar study in quails fed with 1 or 2% yeast supplementation, Ghally and Abd El-Latif (2007) recorded improved blood constituents (serum proteins, AST and ALT). Contrary to these findings, some investigators have shown that addition of yeast on hen diets significantly reduce the concentrations of serum cholesterol (Mahdavi et al. 2005; Yalcin et al., 2008a, 2010, 2014; Hassanein and Soliman 2010) and serum triglycerides (Yalcin et al. 2014). The observed variations in these studies may be attributed to the variety of the yeast forms or different experiment conditions (etc: environmental stress).
Immune status of laying chickens
The gut and its inhabiting microorganisms play a vital role in shaping the body defense system in poultry (Diarra et al. 2011). Yeast cell wall products (chitin, mannan, and glucan) are known to stimulate the gut defense systems, increase immunoglobulin levels (Abaza et al. 2008), and white blood cell count (Abdollahi et al. 2002). The immune (Toms and Powrie, 2001; Cotter et al., 2002) stimulation potential of yeast products in breeders and laying hens have been reported. Kabir et al. (2004) and Maziar et al. (2007) investigated the influence of yeast on the body defense system of chickens and observed increased antibody production (p<0.01) in treated birds compared to the control birds. Likewise, Haghighi et al. (2006) reported increased serum and intestinal natural antibodies to several foreign antigens in chickens. Ezema (2012) reported a significant increase in absolute lymphocyte count in experimental birds fed S. cerevisiae supplemented diets compared to the control birds. MOS has been documented to improve antibody responses in broiler and layers (Raju and Devegowda 2002; Cotter et al., 2002). In contrast to the findings of others (Raju and Devegowda 2002; Cotter et al., 2002), Pinar et al. (2013) have reported non significant increase in weekly serum antibody titer in brown lay hens (aged 22 weeks) fed inactivated yeast supplemented diets for 14 days (Figure 1) whereas, Yalcin et al. (2014) obtained a significantly higher antibody titer in laying brown hens (aged 29 weeks) fed yeast cell wall based diets for 26 weeks compared to the control group (Figure 2). The observed variations in the two studies (Pinar et al. 2013; Yalcin et al. 2014) may be attributed to the duration of feedings, yeast form and age differences.
Figure 1: Serum antibody titer of laying hens to yeast diets
Figure 2: Serum antibody titer of laying hens to yeast diets
a, bBars with different superscripts differed significantly (p<0.05)
Majority of the primary studies reviewed showed that addition of yeast probiotic in laying hen diets improved feed utilization efficiency, egg number/weight, egg (external and internal) quality traits and health status, thus an indication that yeast probiotic can serve as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. Yeast may have achieved via one or combinations of the following modes of action: (i) increasing the number of good microbes in gut through selective exclusion and antagonism (Kabir et al. 2005; Schneitz 2005), (ii) inhibiting the production of toxins by pathogenic microbes (Musa et al. 2009), (iii) Alteration of gut metabolic processes in favour of production and release of endogenous digestive enzymes as against the production bacterial enzyme activity and ammonia (Han et al. 1999; Yoon et al. 2004), (iv) direct nutritional effects or improving feed intake, digestion and nutrient utilization (Kabir, 2004; Ezema 2007), (v) Activation of gut defense system (Haghighi et al. 2006; Apata 2008), and (vi) Decreasing gut pH via increased volatile fatty acids production (Chichlowski et al. 2007; Choudhari et al. 2008). Furthermore, there were no consensus results on the duration of feeding and optimum inclusion level with the best production response. Therefore, it is suggested that future research should be directed at determining the dose-related response on egg production and quality to dietary supplementation be modeled in laying chicken using quadratic equation quadratic.
Abaza I, Shehata M, Shoieb M, Hassan I (2008) Evaluation of some natural feed additive in growing chicks’ diet. Int J Poult Sci 7:872–879.
Abdollahi M, Kamyab A, Bazzazzadekan A, Shahneh A (2002) Effect of different levels of probiotic (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis) on broilers performance. Poult Sci 81:134
Afshare-Mazandaran N, Rajab A (2001) Probiotics and their application in animal and poultry nutrition (5th edition). Noorbakhsh Express (Tehran).
Apata DF (2008) Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and immune response of broiler chicks fed diets supplemented with a culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Sci Food Agric 88:1253–1258.
Bageridizaj S, Pirmohammadi R, Bampidis V (2006) Effects of dietary probiotics on performance. Egg quality and yolk/serum cholesterol of laying hens. J Anim Vet Adv 5:1175 – 1180
Bradley GL, Savage TF (1995) The effect of autoclaving a yeast culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Turkey poult performance and the retention of gross energy and selected minerals. Anim Feed Sci and Tech 55: 1-7.
Chichlowski M, Croom J, Mcbride BW, Havenstein GB, Koci MD (2007) Metabolic and physiological impact of probiotics or direct fed microbials on poultry: A brief review of current knowledge. Int J Poult Sci 6:694-704.
Choudhari A, Shinde S, Ramteke, BN (2008) Prebiotics and probiotics as a health promoter. Vet World 1:59-61.
Cotter PF, Sefton AE, Lilburn MS (2002) Manipulating the immune system of layers and breeders: Novel applications for mannan-oligosaccharides. Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food Industries. Lyons TP, Jacques KA, ed. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham. pp21–27.
Diarra SS, Kwari ID, Girgiri YA, Saleh B, Igwebuike JU (2011) The use of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed as a feed ingredient for poultry: A review of current. Res Opinions in Anim and Vet Sci 1: 573-450.
Dizaji B, Pirmohammadi R (2009) Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bioplus 2B on the performance of laying hens. Int J Agric and Biol 11:495-497.
Ezema C (2007) The performance of broilers fed palm kernel cake-based diet supplemented with bioactive yeast. M.Sc. dissertation, Dept. of Animal Health and Production, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, pp 47
Ezema C (2012) Probiotic effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on laying chicken fed palm kernel cake-based diets. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Animal Health and Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, pp 84
Ezema C, Ugwu CC (2014) Probiotic effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nutrient digestibility and pH of the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. In: Proceedings of the international conference on beneficial microbes ICOBM 2014: microbes for the benefits of mankind, May 27–29, Parkroyal Penang Resort, Penang, Malaysia, A-3, pp 10–13
Fuller R (2001) The chicken gut microflora and probiotic supplements. J Poult Sci 38:189–196
Fuller R (1989) Probiotics in man and animals A review. J Appl Bacteriol 66:365–378
Fuller R (1977) The importance of lactobacilli in maintaining normal microbial balance in the crop. Brit Poult Sci 18: 18-94.
Ghally KA, Abd El-Latif SA (2007) Effect of dietary yeast on some productive and physiological aspects of growing Japanese quails. African Crop Sci Conf Proc 8:2147-2151.
Guillot JF (2003) Probiotic feed additives. J. Vet Pharmacol 26:52-55.
Guillot JF (2009) Consequences of probiotics release in the intestine of animals. Universite de tours- IUT, reve du pant- Volant, 37082, France.
Haghighi HR, Gong J, Gyles CL, Hayes MA, Zhou H, Sanei B, Chambers JR, Sharif S (2006) Probiotics stimulate the production of natural antibodies in chickens. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:975–980
Haiman, E.T and Frank, H (1994). Eine eintachementhod .Zurbestimmuung dereasserbindung inMuskol Dio Naturwisenschaften .40, 29.
Hamad, S. H. (1986). Screening of yeasts associated with food from Sudan and their possible application for single cell protein and ethanol production .P.h.D. Thesis, Teschniche Divesitael , Berilin, Germany .
Han SW, Lee KW, Lee BD, Sung CG (1999) Effect of feeding Aspergillus oryzae culture on fecal microflora, egg qualities, and nutrient metabolizabilities in laying hens. Asian Aust J Anim Sci 12:417–421
Hassanein, S.M. and Soliman, N.K. (2010). Effect of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) adding to diets on intestinal microflora and performance of Hy-Line layers hens. J. Amer. Sci. 6(11):159-169
Hewida, H.M.A., M.H. El-Allawy and A.A. El-Ghamry, 2011. The Effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture versus flavomycin supplementation on laying hen diets and their comparative influence on the late stage production performance. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science Volume: 1; 3:149-153
Jaehrig SC, Rohn S, Kroh LW, Wildenauer FX, Lisdat F, Fleischer LG, Kurz T (2008): Antioxidative activity of (1?3), (1?6)-?-D-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on different media. LWT- Food Sci Technol, 41, 868-877.
Jin LZ, Ho YW, Abdullah N, Jalaludin S. Probiotics in poultry: modes of action. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 1998. V. 53. P. 351–368.
Jones FT, Ricke SC. Observations on the history of the development of antimicrobials and their use in poultry feeds. Poult. Sci. 2003. V. 82. P. 613–617.
Jonvel S (1993) Use of yeast in monogastrics. Feed Mix 1: Number 4
Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB (2005) Potentiation of probiotics in promoting microbiological meat quality of broilers. J Bangladesh Soc Agric Sci Technol 2:93–96
Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB, Rahman MM, Ahmed SU (2004) The dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response in broilers. Int J Poult Sci 3:361–364
Khan R.U. and Naz S. (2013). The application of probiotics in poultry production. World Poultry Science Journal, 26:621-631.
Kim, S.H.; Y.U. Dj; S.Y. Park; S.J. Lee and K.S. Ryu (2002). Effects of single or mixed feeding of lactobacillus and yeast on performance, nutrient digestibility intestinal microflora, and fecal NH3 gas emission in laying hens. Korean Journal of Poultry Sci.; 29 93): 225-231.
Li J, Li DF, Xing JJ, Cheng ZB, Lai CH (2006): Effects of ?-glucan extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, and immunological and somatotropic responses of pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. J Anim Sci, 84, 2374-2381.
Liu Z, Qi G, Yoon I. Effect of yeast culture on production parameters and intestinal microflora in laying hens. Page 89 in Poultry Science Association 91st Annual Meeting Abstracts. August 11–14, 2002. Newark, DE. Abstract No: 381.
Mahdavi AH, Rahmani HR, Pourreza J. Effect of probiotic supplements on egg quality and laying hen’s performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2005. V. 4. P. 488 – 492.
Maziar, M.A., Seyed, A.H., Houshang L. and Farid, S. (2007). Effect of probiotics, yeast, vitamin e and vitamin c supplements on performance and immune response of laying hen during high environmental temperature. International Journal of Poultry Science 6 (12): 895-900,
McDonald P., Edevers E.A., Greenhlg J.D.F. (1988). Animal Nutrition 4th edition. Longman Scientific and Technical, England
Musa, H.H., Wu S.L., Zhu C.H., Seri H.I., and Zhu, G.O. 2009. The potential benefits of probiotics in animal production and health. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8:313-321.
Mutus, R., Kobagli N., Alp, M., Acar, N. Eren, M. and Gezen, S.S. 2006. The effect of dietary probiotic supplementation on tibial bone characteristics and strength in broilers. Poultry Science, 86: 1621-1625.
Nahashon SN, Nakaue HS, Mirosh LW. 1994. Production variable and nutrient retentions in single comb white leghorn laying pullets fed diets supplemented with direct fed microbials. Poultry Science 73: 1699- 1711.
Nahashon SN, Nakaue HS, Mirosh LW. Effect of direct-fed microbials on nutrient retention and production parameters of laying pullets. Poult. Sci. 1992. V. 71(suppl. 1). P. 111.
Nitta K, Kobayashi F. Brewer’s yeast as health foodstuff. New Food Ind. 1999. V. 41. P. 17–23.
Nursoy, H.; O. Kaplan; M.N. Oguz and O. Yilmaz (2004). Effect of varying levels of live yeast culture on yields and some parameters in laying hen diets. Indian Veterinary J.; 81 (1): 59-62.
Osman, A.E. (2010). Effect of dietary supplementation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Poultry Production, University of Khartoum. pp:1-56.
Park, D.Y.; H. Namkung and I.K. Paik (2001). Effect of supplementary yeast culture on the performance of laying hens. J. Animal Sci. and Technology; 43 (5): 639-646.
Park, J.H.; G.H. Park and K.S. Ryu (2002). Effect of feeding organic acid mixture and yeast culture on performance and egg quality of laying hens. Korea. J. Poult. Sci.; 29 (2): 109-115.
Patterson JA, Burkholder KM. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poult. Sci. 2003. V. 82. P. 627–631.
Pinar, S., Ahmet, E., Bekir, H.K., Bulent, O. and Zafer, C. (2013) Effects of inactivated brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on egg production, serum antibody titres and cholesterol levels in laying hens. Veterinarija Ir Zootechnika (Vet Med Zoot). T. 61 (83):53-60
Plavnik, I. and Scott, M.L. 1980. Effect of additional vitamin, minerals or brewer’s yeast upon leg weakness in broiler chickens. poultry science, 59:459-464.
Raju MVLN, Devegowda G. Esterified-glucomannan in broiler chicken diets-contaminated with aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin: Evaluation of its binding ability (in vitro) and efficacy as an immunomodulator. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2002. V.5. P. 1051–1056.
Reed G, Naodawithana TW (1999) Yeast Technology, 2nd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York
Samanta. G, Mondal. L. (1988). Feeding value of industrial yeast by-product in broiler diet .indian J. Poult. Sci. 23:99- 100.
Sanaa, H.M.E. (2013). Effect of dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation as a feed additive to laying hen diet on egg production, egg quality, carcass traits and blood constituents. Egyptian J. Anim. Prod. (2013) 50(2):111-115
Schneitz C (2005) Competitive exclusion in poultry––30 years of research. Food Control 16:657–667
Sehu A, Yalcin S, Karakas F. B?ld?rc?n rasyonlar?na kat?lan ekmek mayas?n?n büyüme ve karkas rand?man?na etkisi. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 1997. V. 21. P. 221–226.
Shareef, A.M.; A.S.A.AL- Dabbagh (2009). Effect of probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the performance of broiler chicks. Iraqi J. Veterinary Sci. Vol. 23.
Sharma, K.S.; K.V. Sharma; M. Kumari; K. Shavani; K.S. Mukul and B.S. Katoch (2001). Performance of laying pullets fed microbial combinations up to eighteen weeks of age/ the age of sexual maturity. Indian J. Animal Science; 71 (6): 566-569.
Shashidhara RG, Devegowda G. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on broiler breeder production traits and immunity. Poult. Sci. 2003. V. 82. P. 1319– 1325.
Shivani, K.; K.S. Mukul; K. Meena and B.S. Katoch (2003). Biological performance of chicken fed newly isolated probiotics. Indian J. Animal Science; 73 (11): 1271-1273.
Soliman, A.Z.M. (2003). Bacitracin and active yeast supplementation in layer diets varying in energy content. Egypt. Poult. Sci.; 23 (1): 37-51.
Songsak, C., Anut, C. and Suwannee, S. 2009. Effect of dietary inclusion of cassava yeast as a probiotic source on egg production and egg quality of laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8(2): 195-199.
Spring P, Wenk C, Dawson KA, Newman KE (2000): The effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharides on cecal parameters and the concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca of Salmonella-challenged broiler chicks. Poultry Sci, 79, 205-211.
Stanley VG, Winsman M, Dunkley C, Ogunleye T, Daley M, Krueger WF, Sefton AE, Hinton A. The impact of yeast culture residue on the suppression of dietary aflatoxin on the performance of broiler breeder hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 2004. V. 13. P. 533–539.
Stone CW. Yeast products in the feed industry. A practical guide for feed professionals.http://www.diamondv.com/products/yc.html, 2004.
Swain, B.K., Naik, P.K., Chakurkar, E.B. and Singh, N.P. (2011) Effect of probiotics and yeast supplementation on performance, egg quality characteristics and economics of production in Vanaraja layers. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 46(3): 313-315.
Tangendjaja B, Yoon I. Effect of yeast culture on egg production and mortality in layer chickens. Page89 in Poultry Science Association 91st Annual Meeting Abstracts. August 11–14, 2002. Newark, DE. Abstract No: 380.
Thayer RH, Jackson CD. Improving phytate phosphorus utilization by poultry with live yeast culture. Animal Science Research Report MP-94. 1975, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater OK.
Toms C, Powrie F. Control of intestinal inflammation by regulatory T cells. Microbes Infect. 2001. V. 3. P. 29–935.
Wakwak, M.M.; El-Afifi; S.F. Nagla; K. Soliman and M. Attia (2003). Effect of adding active dried yeast into Japanese quail diets on performance, some immunity and microbiological aspects. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ.; 28 (4): 2601-2612.
Yalcin, S., B. Ozsoy El-Erol and S. Yalcin, 2008a. Yeast culture supplementation to laying hen diets containing soybean meal or sunflower seed meal and its effect on performance, egg quality traits and blood chemistry. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 17, 229-236.
Yalc?n, S., F. Oguz, B. Guçlu and S. Yalc?n, 2008b. Effects of dietary dried baker’s yeast on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in laying quails. Tropical Animal Health and Production, (2009) 41:5–10.
Yalc?n, S., S. Yalc?n, Kemal Cak?n, O. Eltan and L. Dagasan, 2010. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 290: 1695–1701.
Yalçin, S., Yalçin, S., Onba?ilar, I., Handan Eser, H. and ?ahin, A. (2014). Effects of dietary yeast cell wall on performance, egg quality and humoral immune response in laying hens. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg, 61:289-294.
Yoon C, Na CS, Park JH, Han SK, Nam YM, Kwon JT (2004) Effect of feeding multiple probiotics on performance and fecal noxious gas emission in broiler chicks. Korean J Poult Sci 3:229–235
Yousefi, M. and K. Karkoodi, 2007. Effect of probiotic thepax® and Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on performance and egg quality of laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Science 6 (1): 52-54.Sanaa H.M.
Zhang, A.W.; Lee, B.D.; Lee, S.K.; Lee, K.W.; An, G.H.; Song, K.B.; Lee, C.H. (2005). Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell components on growth performance, meat quality, and ileal mucosa development of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 84, 1015-1021.