Transformations of North America 1450-North America


Transformations of North America
1450-North America, Europe, and Africa were separate complex societies
Christopher Columbus (most momentous developments in world history)
Contact was sustained between colonies all over the world
Before european arrival, Native Americans had complex societies
Native Americans shaped colonial enterprise in important ways
Ideas about gods and the spirit world
Political systems
Approaches to trade and welfare
Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans viewed each other very differently
3 main developments that are central to this period:
Native American Diversity and Complexity
Natives Americans: organized into tribes, few material possessions, primitive beliefs/cultures, reliant on hunting, political tribe leaders, tribe worked together with assigned jobs and tasks
Native American societies shaped colonial emprise
2. Colonial Settlement and the Columbian Exchange
Columbian Exchange
People crossing Atlantic, with them they brought
Animals
Horses, pig, cattle
Plants
Potatoes, maze, corn, tomatoes
Germs (disease, sickness)
Smallpox, influenza, bubonic plague
Experimentation and Transformation
Colonization: A long and tortured process of experimentation
Imported labor forces (African Slave Trade)
Transformations of North America 1450-1700

Chapter 1
Native Americans, Europeans, and African rule their empires and kingdoms securely and sustain their power very differently. Native Americans had chiefs and leaders that were local or reported to a higher power. The people reacted well to these powers and respected the ranks, although there was instances of violence between groups. Europeans sustained from a system of nobility, with ranks and high and lower social powers. This process did not benefit lower class families, leaving the man at the head of the house and the youngest to inherit close to nothing. Africans ruled with empires, kingdoms, and mini-states. The people were extremely effected by the ruler’s decisions, mostly in negative ways regarding money.
The role that religious and spiritual ideas play in shaping the experience of ordinary people on the three continents was by introducing diffrent jobs to both males and females.
Long-distance trade in exotic goods such an important phenomenon in North America, Europe, and Africa was important because it allowed the transfer of new ideas, food and animals to from each part of the world, it helped impact the Renaissance, it reinforced economy, it enhanced societies over the improvement of technology, weapons, and livestock, and it demolished cultures through conflicts, illness, and cultural damage.
The similarities of the eastern woodland societies of North America and the kingdoms of Western Europe were that males and females had diverse occupations. The diffrences were that women were observed as a higher status in America while Native American tribes had male-controlled society, Western Europe had a society were females were intended to take upkeep the household errands and offspring, males were destined to complete hard labor and deliver for the family.
The contacts amoung Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans after the economics of the three contients were trade systems, and employment and business made their frugalities superior and also enlarged their information of the world outside their own continent.
Chapter 2
American Expierments
Chattel Slavery: the ownership of human beings as property
The process (the instituion of chattel slavery) was molded to the needs of colonial planters
3 distinct types of colonies had devolped in America
Tribute colonies
Created in Merico and Peru
Relied on wealth and labor of indigenous peoples
Plantation colonies
Sugar and other tropical crops were produced
Produced with bound labor
Neo- Europes
Colonists sought to repiclate there european home (economy and socail structures)
Spain’s Tribute Colonies
Influence from Spain’s conquest of Aztecs and Incaempires
System of trade and labor (ended with enormous wealth of Mesoamerica and Andes)
Municipal councils, the legal code, the Catholic Church
A New American World
Cortés toppled Moctezuma and Pizarro defeated Atahualpa
Allowed them to claim tribute in labor and goods from India communities
Prominent men controlled vast resources and monopolized Indain labor
Mita System: made laborers available to the Inca Empire, to force Indain workers into the mines
2 great indigenous empires of the Americas became the core of a wealthy empire
Between 1500 and 1650, many spaniards migrated (Mesoamerica and Andes)
Indians were the majority in Mexico and Peru
Spaniards and mixed-races grew in number
Catholicism transformed: Spanish priests suppressed religious ceremonies and texts and converted natives to Christianity
The Columbian Exhange
Spanish Invasion altered life (smallpox, influenza, measles, yellow fever from Europe)
Population decrease by 90%
Movement of disease, food, and cultural to spain was called The Columbian Exhange
The Protestant Challenge to Spain
Spain claimed vasr American dominions but struggled to maintain them
Caribbean basin: Spain’s transatlantic shipping routes
Wealthiest nation under rule of King Philip II (r. 1556–1598)
Revolt = Fifteen years war = seven northern provinces declared their independence, becoming the Dutch Republic (or Holland) in 1581
king Henry VIII (r. 1509–1547) opposed Protestantism
Queen Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603), approved a Protestant confession of faith
Reinforced a group of English seafarers who removed progressively violent activities against Spanish control of American fortune
Francis Drake
ventured into the Pacific to disrupt Spanish shipping to Manila
completed the first English circumnavigation of the globe and captured Spanish treasure ships
Spain was in serious economic decline in 1590s but grew back in 1600s
Mercantilism : system of state-assisted manufacturing and trade
Plantation Colonies
Spain Protestant rivals: Portugal, England, France, and the Netherlands
Forced dramatic innovative burdens on native populations
Brazil’s Sugar Plantations
Portuguese colonists made sugar plantation zones
Sugar plantations combined backbreaking agricultural labor with milling, extracting, and refining processes that made sugar plantations look like Industrial Revolution–era factories
Plantation owners turned to slavery to make greater profits
England’s Tobacco Colonies
England slowly accepted planting colonies in America
The Jamestown Settlement
Merchants then took charge of English expansion
King James I (r. 1603–1625): granted to the Virginia Company of London all the lands stretching from present-day North Carolina to southern New York
Virginia Company: only employed men
Searched out valuable commodities like pearls and gold
Found not gold or valubles
settled on a swampy peninsula (named it JamesTown)
dispatched 1,200 colonists to Jamestown
Plan to dominate the local Indian population ran up against the presence of Powhatan (powerful cheif of that area)
Powhatan arranged a marriage between his daughter Pocahontas and John Rolfe (bonded the 2 communities)
Tobbaco (cash crop)
House of Burgesses: first convened in 1619, could make laws and levy taxes, although the governor and the company council in England could veto its acts
The Indian War of 1622
influx of migrants sparked an all-out conflict with the neighboring Indians
Opechancanough (Powhatan’s younger brother and successor)
Attacked some of the first English invaders
he resisted English proposals to place Indian children in European schools
coordinated a surprise attack by twelve Indian chiefdoms that killed 347 English settlers
English fought back by seizing the fields and food
English captured the Indians and sold them into slavery
James I revoked the Virginia Company’s charter and, in 1624, made Virginia a royal colony
House of Burgesses (a committee of political advisors) must ratify all legislation
legal establishment of the Church of England in the colony
residents had to pay taxes to support its clergy
Lord Baltimore Settles Catholics in Maryland
A second tobacco-growing colony developed in neighboring Maryland
King Charles I (r. 1625–1649), James’s successor, was secretly sympathetic toward Catholicism
Maryland grew quickly
Baltimore imported many artisans and offered ample lands to wealthy migrants
Political conflict threatened the colony’s stability
Anti-Catholic agitation by Protestants also threatened his religious goals
Toleration Act (1649): which granted all Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services
Tobacco became a main crop
The Caribbean Islands
Virginia’s trial with a cash crop that shaped a land-intensive plantation civilization competed similar to growths in the Caribbean
Sir Thomas Warner established a settlement on St. Christopher (St. Kitts)
Colonists experimented with a wide variety of cash crops
tobacco, indigo, cotton, cacao, and ginger
Plantation Life
North America and the Caribbean, plantations were initially small freeholds
Freeholds: farms of 30 to 50 acres owned and farmed by families or male partners
Headright system: guaranteed 50 acres of land to anyone who paid the passage of a new immigrant to the colony
buying additional indentured servants and slaves, the colony’s largest planters also amassed ever-greater claims to land
Plantations split up families, life was harsh for slaves
Indentured Servitude
the prospect of owning land continued to lure settlers
Indentured servitude: contracts bound the men — and the quarter who were women — to work for a master for four or five years, after which they would be free to marry and work for themselves
Process called “seasoning”
Indentured servants were a bargain if they survived the voyage and their first year in a harsh new disease environment
Few indentured servants escaped poverty