The rationale for this study will be to provide a sound understanding into the benefits of physical activity for those currently living a sedentary lifestyle as well as looking into the obesity epidemic that currently affects the United Kingdom. This research will focus on physical activity (prearranged, structured and repetition of bodily movements) with the goal to improve a participant’s physical ?tness and health (Middlekamp and Steenbergen,2015). This leads to the question; how could the Trans-theoretical Model of Behaviour help promote positive changes in health-related behaviours for an individual currently not partaking in physical activity? It is important that this area is investigated because by 2050, 60% of men, 50% of women and 25% of children will be obese because of the sedentary lifestyles the population of the UK are living (Hilton et al, 2012).
Hilton et al. (2012) stated, within the 21st century, obesity has fast become one of the largest health challenges faced by humanity. Whilst also highlighting that obesity rates had increased by double in the United Kingdom over the past twenty-five years, with approximately a quarter of adults classified as obese with warnings that with no action taken that 60% of men, 50% of women, and 25% of children will be obese by 2050. The reason behind these figures are the result of increased energy consumption in conjunction with decreased energy expenditure assisted by environmental impacts that favour energy-dense diets and inactive lifestyles (Rocha et al, 2016).
Research by Owen et al. (2010) presented evidence that people who do too much sitting (watching TV, computer use or sitting in a car) with no physical activity only use 1.0 to 1.5 METs (multiples of the basal metabolic rate). Whereas those who do moderate to vigorous physical activity such as swimming, walking, or running need use energy expenditures of 3 to 8 METs. Many researchers’ sole focus regarding physical activity has been on activities that only involve high levels of energy outlay of above 4.5 METs. However, activities such as gardening which use 1.7-2.9 METs haven’t always been considered as useful indicators of physical activity (Park et al, 2014). Therefore, this research will be based on moderate activities such as walking and gardening.
Evidence has shown that sedentary behaviours such as continuous television viewing, computer use and sitting at work are linked to complex risks of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity with leisure-time inactivity being associated with increased death (Miller, 2010). Living a sedentary lifestyle doesn’t just affect physical health but can have adverse effects on mental health and wellbeing (Paxton et al, 2010). Research by the British Heart Foundation (2017) found within the United Kingdom there are 20 million adults insufficiently active, this puts them at greater risk of heart and circulatory disease. It’s been estimated at a £1.2 billion cost per year due to physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles that are heavily burdening the United Kingdom’s healthcare.
The NHS recommend regular exercise as it has been proven to lower risk of developing long-term conditions, such as heart disease (35% lower risk), type 2 diabetes (50% lower risk), stroke (35% lower risk), colon (50% lower risk) and breast cancers (20% lower risk). Physical activity can boost self-confidence, temperament, sleep quality and energy whilst reducing the risk of stress, depression (30% lower risk), dementia (30% lower risk) and Alzheimer’s. Additionally, the NHS has physical activity guidelines for all age groups that consist of early childhood (under 5 years old) young people (5 to 18 years old) Adults (19 to 64 years old) and for older adults aged 65 and over, lowering the risk of death by 30% (NHS, 2018).
This research has been designed using five questionnaires, a 30-minute recorded interview which will be conducted with the participant and an agreed action plan on how often and where the physical activity takes place. The five questionnaires are Physical Activity and Stages of Change (Marcus, Rossi, Selby, Niaura and Abrams, 1992) which looks at whether a participant is physically active or intends to be (See Appendix B). Decisional Balance (Marcus, Rakowski and Rossi, 1992) looks at weighing up the pros and cons of physical activity. Self-efficacy (Marcus, Selby, Niaura and Rossi, 1992) highlights participants self-confidence to carry out physical activity (See Appendix D). Processes of Change (Marcus, Rossi, Selby, Niaura and Abrams, 1992) which incorporates more knowledge of physical activity and its benefits (See Appendix E). Social Support for Physical Activity Scale (Sallis, Grossman, Pinski, Patterson and Nader, 1987) which investigates whether the participant has friend’s and family’s encouragement to be physically active (See Appendix F).
This research requires participants to have no long-standing health issues to take part, any health issues should be declared by the participant in a Par-Q form (See Appendix G), as this will decipher whether participants can partake in physical activity.
Within this research, the emphasis will be on exploring the relevance and benefits of the trans-theoretical model and the exercise behaviours for a participant. Mixed methods of data will be collected during this study with regular communication between the researcher and participant. The participant is a male aged 65 years old currently living a sedentary lifestyle, of which he wants to change by incorporating light to moderate physical activity into his everyday life. Participant will complete the five questionnaires over the twelve to fifteen-week period to review his ability to continue physical activity. These activities will be recorded by the participant completing a daily diary to enable the researcher to gauge the level of physical activity that they partake in each day.
An information sheet (See Appendix H) and an informed consent form (See Appendix I), to outline the guidelines and procedures regarding the research process, will be given to the participant and will need to be completed before the study commences. The forms will incorporate the rationale, the type of participant needed and what the participant will be asked to do. In addition to this, an explanation of the potential risks such as muscle strains and tears as well as an outline of physiological changes while exercising will be reiterated to the participant. This will include information on heart rate and increased breathing. Each process should distinguish the duty of the researchers in securing informed consent from research participants in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration (Merz,2018).
Within the information sheet participants are made aware that their data will be held securely within the University of Bedfordshire, all participants will remain anonymous. This research will need to be approved by the University of Bedfordshire’s ethics committee (See Appendix A). Participants can withdraw at any stage without affecting their standard of care as stated in the information sheet.