The main external factors that brought about the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate included the opening up of japan to foreign influences such as America and Russia, the realisation that these foreigners had more advanced war technology and that the shoguns would not be able to protect Japan from the rest of the world.
The Russians were the first western country to journey into the islands of Japan and try to open up trade, but the Americans were more successful. as they were able to force the Shoguns to sign a treaty of open trade. In 1853, US Commodore Matthew Perry threw Japan’s power into disturbance by implying threat of his modern warships to force the Shoguns to sign a treaty of open trade. The westerners showed the Japanese people that the Shoguns were not the only people with power and undermined their authority. The new trade deal meant that cheaper western goods soon flooded the market wiping out local industries and as a result, many people lost faith in the Shogun. This led to anti-foreign outbursts within the country and ultimately the Japanese people looked for new leadership.
The arrival of westerners into Japan and the opening up to foreign trade, led to economic collapse and finacial difficulties for the people of Japan and showed the weakness of the Shogun’s power. This led to the Tokugawa Shogunate being overthrown.