SAFE MEDICATION AND HEALTHCARE FOT ALL
It is well said that” knowing safety is not enough, practice it”.
Patient safety is basically how hospitals and other health care organizations protect their patients from errors, injuries, accidents, and infections. Many hospitals are good at keeping their patients safe, while some hospitals aren’t. A high level of patient safety is a very basic requirement in all healthcare organizations. Traditionally, patient safety work relies heavily on education and training, standardization, such as development of guidelines. Still, medication errors are common.
Human factors limit the safety of health care processes and also contribute to medication errors. There are some Factors such as fatigue, inattention, memory lapse, lack of knowledge, failure to communicate, use of poorly designed equipment, noisy working conditions, interruptions, and numerous other personal and environmental factors that play the crucial role. Most common contributing factor in medication errors and adverse drug events are communication errors according to many researchers. Some of Examples of written communication problems included wrong dosages or wrong drugs on written prescriptions or wrong medications noted on patient medication lists. Verbal communication issues noted included “misunderstood verbal physician orders, miscommunication between patients and pharmacists, and miscommunication between nurses and pharmacists regarding correct medication or dosage”. According to The Joint Commission, accurate and complete medication reconciliation, the process of comparing a patient’s medication orders to all of the medications that the patient has been taking, can prevent numerous prescribing and administration errors. Main focus is on improving practices that involve medication prescribing and administration and have endorsed systems improvements, including automated and nonautomated technologies to reduce harmful medication-related errors. A person himself also plays a great role in his medication.
We all know that Medicines have proven to be very beneficial for treating illness and preventing disease. Due to this there is a dramatic increase in medication use in recent times. A lot of people rely on medicines to sustain in their lives. Medication therapy is one of the most ubiquitous interventions in the health system. Medication management is an erring and complex process which includes the following steps: preparation, prescription, administration, requisition, control and storage of drugs. Mistakes during the medication management process, i.e., medication errors, are well-known threats to patient safety in both hospital and home care settings. Medication errors could have serious implications for patients’ well-being, morbidity and mortality, including costs for the healthcare system and society.
Recent improvements in technology have made it possible to transfer administration of vigorous drugs and the use of complex technology into patient homes, making home healthcare with advanced health interventions a growing arena. Some of the Specialized home healthcare units are an expanding form of the traditional palliative home healthcare. Many Patients with chronic diseases have the possibility to choose this kind of care when basic home healthcare is insufficient, as an alternative to hospital care. This has made very convenient for patients to have proper treatment and care.
Unfortunately, the increase in use and expansion of the pharmaceutical industry has also brought with it an increase in errors, hazards and adverse events associated with medication use. Medication has also become increasingly complex process and there has been a massive increase in the number and variety of medications that are available. These may have different routes of delivery, variable actions (long acting, short acting) and there are drugs with the same action and formulation but they have different trade names. Although there are better treatments for chronic disease, more patients take multiple medications and there are more patients with multiple co-morbidities. This then increases the likelihood of drug interactions, side-effects and mistakes in administration. The entire process of delivering medications to patients is often shared by a number of health-care professionals, doctors, nurses and also Communication failures can lead to gaps in the continuity of the process. Also, the Doctors are prescribing a larger range of medications so there are more medicines they need to be familiar with in order to provide proper medication to the patient and There is just too much information for a doctor to be able to remember in a reliable way. In many cases Doctors look after patients who are taking medications prescribed by other doctors (often specialized doctors) and hence may not be familiar with the effects of all the medications a patient is taking. What we as a student needs to know is to understand the scale of medication error, understand that using medications has associated risks, understand common sources of error, understand where in the process errors can occur, understand a doctors’ responsibilities when prescribing and administering medication, recognize common hazardous situations, learn ways to make medication use safer, understand the benefits of a multidisciplinary approach to medication safety. What a student needs to do is to Acknowledge that medication safety is a vast topic and an understanding of the area will affect how a clinician performs in the proper use of generic names; tailor prescribing for each patient, learn and practice thorough medication history taking, know the high-risk medications, be very familiar with the medications you prescribe, use memory aids, develop checking habits, communicate clearly encourage patients to be actively involved in the medication process, report and learn from errors, learn and practice drug calculations. Also, it is important to understand the 5Rs of drugs-Right drug, right route, right time, right dose, right patient.
Hence need for proper administration of drugs has to be done. One thing which can also play great role in this is many information technology applications for medication safety. These include computerized physician order entry, automated dispensing cabinets, electronic prescribing, bar coding coupled with an electronic medication administration record, and intravenous infusion technology (smart pumps). Secondly, every organization shall establish policies and procedures for the medication administration process. This will ensure that all personnel—including support/non-licensed staff, licensed staff, and relief staff—are informed of all possible outcomes related to the medication administration process. The personnel can then teach patients and their families at the bedside about the medication administration procedure, how the medication works, the purpose of the medication, how to recognize possible adverse events, and what to do if an adverse event occurs as we know that patient safety has to be in patients’ hand with proper awareness. Medicines are major contributors to the health and well-being of individuals and populations when used appropriately, and they waste resources and endanger health when used unnecessarily or incorrectly. Stakeholders need to balance inherently competing objectives in the pharmaceutical sector. Emerging and expanding UHC schemes provide potential levers to balance competing system objectives. To use these levers, property universal coverage programs would require a) info systems that may track medicines utilization, expenditures, and quality of medicines use; b) routine observance of indicators of medicines availableness, access, affordability, and use; c) policies and programs that facilitate applicable medicines use by prescribers, dispensers, and patients; d) transparency in setting priorities for medicines coverage beneath resource constraints; and e) a system perspective to interact various actors. As they operationalize ways toward universal health coverage and embrace targeted medicines coverage policies and programs, systems will hinge upon, and initiate, pharmaceutical policy frameworks and management tools from totally different countries’ setting.
Ensuring that medicines that attain vital health outcomes are out there, accessible to any or all, used fittingly, and sustainably reasonable is important for realizing universal health coverage. Stakeholder cooperation and use of knowledge and funding system levers give opportunities to figure toward this goal.