Introduction


Introduction:
Over the life cycle of the well, its reach a time where the reservoir pressure drop and artificial lift system must be implemented to recover the remain fluids from the ground. However, beam pump is the most common artificial system used over the world and it’s mainly covers 70% compared to other systems used. This type of artificial lift system assembly used to convert the rotation movement from the motor to a reciprocating motion by a beam and crank, this motion transferred to the downhole pump assembly by the sucker rod. The pump consist of barrel, plunger, travelling and standing valves. Their functionality are based on mechanical movement up ; down which help creating a pressure difference through the valves and helps fluids to be lifted up to the surface.

Aim:
Although, every mechanical device movement has a potential to fail at any time, the aim of this project is to investigate and evaluate the different types of pump failures and the way to minimize it.

Objectives:

1. Study and evaluate the different types of pump failures.

2. Investigate and analyze the way to minimize the failures.

3. Collect data from MUK field on any solutions implemented and the achieved results.

4. Evaluate the effects on any mechanical devices used to reduce the failures

5. Identify the risks and challenged on those pumps and mechanical protection devices

Literature Review:
A beam pump is the over ground drive for a reciprocating piston pump in an oil well. It is used to mechanically lift liquid out of the well if not enough bottom hole pressure exists for the liquid to flow all the way to the surface. The arrangement is commonly used for onshore wells producing little oil. Beam pumps are common in oil-rich areas. Depending on the size of the pump, it generally produces 5 to 40 liters of liquid at each stroke. Often this is an emulsion of crude oil and water. Pump size is also determined by the depth and weight of the oil to remove, with deeper extraction requiring more power to move the increased weight of the discharge column (discharge head).

At the bottom of the tubing is the down-hole pump. This pump has two ball check valves: a stationary valve at bottom called the standing valve, and a valve on the piston connected to the bottom of the sucker rods that travels up and down as the rods reciprocate, known as the traveling valve. Reservoir fluid enters from the formation into the bottom of the borehole through perforations that have been made through the casing and cement (the casing is a larger metal pipe that runs the length of the well, which has cement placed between it and the earth; the tubing, pump, and sucker rod are all inside the casing).
When the rods at the pump end are travelling up, the traveling valve is closed and the standing valve is open (due to the drop in pressure in the pump barrel). Consequently, the pump barrel fills with the fluid from the formation as the traveling piston lifts the previous contents of the barrel upwards. When the rods begin pushing down, the traveling valve opens and the standing valve closes (due to an increase in pressure in the pump barrel). The traveling valve drops through the fluid in the barrel (which had been sucked in during the upstroke). The piston then reaches the end of its stroke and begins its path upwards again, repeating the process.

This movement of up and down in a piston has a potential of a failure. As any mechanical device in the worlds has this ability and chance to fail, also there are many ways to reduce or minimize those failures. I am going to show in this project all the possible ways.