“IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BOILER” A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED BY CHAUHAN PARTH


“IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BOILER”
A PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED BY
CHAUHAN PARTH (160853119005)
DHEDA HIMANSHU (160853119008)
BAMBHANIYA DARSAN (160853119502)
GUNSAI ANKITPURI (160853119012)
Under the guidance of
Mr.RANA SAUMYAKUMAR
Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering
HJD INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
-571500219710
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
HJD INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, KERA
-56959564770
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Project work embodied in this report entitled “IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE LOW CAPACITY BOILER” was carried out by, Chauhan Parth, Dheda Himanshu, Bambhaniya Darshan, Gunsai Ankitpuri at HJD Institute of technical Education and Research for partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering to be awarded by Gujrat Technological University. This Project work has been carried out under our guidance and supervision and is to the satisfaction of department.

Place: Kera Kutch
Signature and Name of guide:

Mr.Rana Saumyakumar
Assistant Professor,
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
Signature and Name of Head of Department
Mr.Vishal Bhimani
Assistant Professor,
Department of Mechanical
Engineering
Examiner Signature
Abstract
Our project is on Low capacity boiler and it is also known as Baby boiler. A boiler is defined as “a closed vassal in which the water or other liquid is heated, steam or vapor is generated, steam is superheated, or any combustion thereof, under pressure or vacuum, for external to itself, by the direct application of energy from the combustion of fuels, from electricity or nuclear energy.”
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil or natural gas, electric steam boiler use resistance or immersion-type heating element, nuclear fusion is also used as heat source or generating system., either directly or, in most cases, in spew.

Acknowledgement
We would like express gratitude to everyone who gave us the every possible guidance and to our project IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF THE BOILER which imparted more knowledge about the project.

We are greatly thankful to our guide Mr. Pareshpuri goswami of “Excel Crop Care – Gajod who has given us a tremendous effort for shaping our ideas and knowledge He has helped us on reaching each and every milestone of the project, he has encouraged us in every failure during the project and he has increased our confidence with every success in the project
We are also thankful to Company and engineers of Mechanical for giving us a platform for the project and helping in each and every moment with suitable methods.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE NO
TITLE PAGE (i)
GENERAL CERTIFICATE (ii)
ABSTRACT (iii)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (iv)
LIST OF FIGURES (v)
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Introduction of Boiler
Types of Boiler
Description about all Boiler
CHAPTER 2. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINATION
2.1 Low performance
2.2 Lake of accessories
2.3 Other problems of boiler
CHAPTER 3. PROBLEM SOLUTION OUTLINE
3.1 Solar water heater
3.2 Installation of air pre heater
3.3 conclusion
CHAPTER 4. PROBLEM SOLUTION
List of Figures
Fig No, Description Page No,
1 Solar water heater 13
2 Air pre heater 15

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
Introduction of the company
The owner of the company is mr. kantishen shroff . Excel crop is the leading manufacturer in agricultural pesticides. The company established in 2002. Excel crop care is located at gajod on mundra high way. Ashwin Shroff, Chairman of both Excel Industries and Excel Crop Care Ltd. is an inspiration and guide to all the Excel members. Ashwin Shroff has an exemplary talent in steering organizations towards growth and leadership. He is also the Chairman of Transpek Industry Limited, Transpek-Silox Industry Limited and has turned the wheel of success in many domains. A graduate in chemistry he began his career with Excel Industries in 1966. He is a perfectionist who settles for nothing less. His interest in environment and waste management projects in metros has been beneficial to the civil authorities immensely. He is a chairperson of the Environment Committee at FICCI.

Leading manufacturer of
Ammonium Salf of Glyphosate
Tebuconazole
Quinalphos
Imidacloprid
Aluminium Phosphide
Sulfur Based Products
Bio-Products
In addition to above products, Excel completes its product range by formulating other Insecticides, Fungicides, Herbicides etc. to meet farmers needs under one roof.

Boiler
A boileris an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred into water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and cheap medium for transferring heat to a process. When water is boiled into steam its volume increases about 1,600times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as gunpowder. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment that must be treated with utmost care.

1.2Types of Boiler:
According to tube content
According to axis of Boiler Shell
According to furnace position
According to circulation of water
1.3 Description about all Boilers
According to tube content
Fire tube boiler: Fire tube boiler or “fire in tube” boilers contain long steel tubes through which the hot gasses from a furnace pass and around which the water to be converted to steam circulates.

Water tube boiler: Water tube boiler or “water in tube” boilers in which the conditions are reversed with the water passing through the tubes and the hot gasses passing outside the tubes
Packaged boiler: The packaged boiler is so called because it comes as a complete package. Once delivered to site, it requires only the steam, water pipe work, fuel supply and electrical connections to be made for it to become operational
According to axis of Boiler Shell
Horizontal boiler: If the axis of the boiler is Horizontal, then it is called the Horizontal boiler.

Vertical boiler: If the axis of the boiler is Vertical, then it is called the Vertical boiler.

According to furnace position
Externally fired boiler: In the boiler if the fire is outside the shell, that boiler is known as externally fired boiler. Furnace construction is simple.

Internally fired boiler: In the boiler in which the furnace is located inside the boiler shall it is known as internally fired boiler. Furnace setting is not required
According to circulation of water
Forced circulation of boiler: In the boilers if the circulation of water is done by a pump then they known as forced circulation boiler
Natural circulation of boiler: In the boilers if the circulation of water takes place due to difference in density resulting from difference is temperature, is known as Natural circulation boiler
According to pressure
High pressure steam boiler: It is one in which the working pressure of the boiler is more than 60 bar.

Low pressure steam boiler: It is defined as a steam boiler whose working pressure is between 3.5 to 20 bar.

CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINATION

Introduction to low capacity Boiler
Low capacity boiler(Baby Boiler)is NON IBR boiler.

Equipment of low capacity boiler
Economiser
Water level indicator
Pressure gauge
Steam stop valve
Safety valve
Fusible plug
Blower
Specification of Boiler
Steam generation rate- 300 kg/hr
Steam pressure 2.45 bar to 3.50 bar
Temperature of water at economiser 450 to 500c
Temperature of steam 1100 to 1150c
Required temperature of steam 750 to 800c
Consumption of fuel — F.O-20 lit/hr
— L.D.O-10 to 15 lit/hr
Missing equipment of boiler
This boiler has not all the accessories which are required in any general boiler that is why the performance of this boiler is less. The accessories like Air pre-heater, Heat exchanger, Super heater.

Air pre-heater
Function: It is a water heat recovery device which is placed in the pathe of the waste flue gases going to the chimney.

Preheating Temperature: The temperature to which air maybe preheated depends upon –
Fuel used.
The rating at which the boiler is operated.

The type fuel burning equipment.

Generally the rise in temperature of air is 35-400 C for pulverized coal.

Advantages:
Due to pre-heating of air, furnace temperature increases resulting in the acceleration of the rate combustion of fuel with air and rapid generation of steam in the boiler.

Due to higher furnace temperature, low grade coal can be used in the plant.

For a boiler using pulverized coal, the installation of air pre-heater is a prerequisite.

Super heater
Function:
The Function of super heater is to increase the temperature of the steam above its saturation point i.e. To super heater the steam.

Advantages of the superheated steam :
Steam consumption of the engine or turbine is reduced.

Losses due to condensation in the cylinders and the steam pipes are reduced.

Erosion if turbine blades is eliminated.

Efficiency of the steam plant is increased.

Fig.1 Low capacity boiler
Problem of boiler
Low performance:
This boiler is NON IBR boiler which we have chosen for project work. The main problem of this boiler is low performance than it has to be. Due to the low performance the efficiency of the boiler is coming out very low, which is 58%.

From this boiler we cannot have that much steam which is require for the change the state of phosphors.

Other problems are as below:
Less efficiency
This boiler has not all the accessories which are required in any general boiler that is why the efficiency of this boiler is less.

Open cycle
NON-IBR
Carbon stuck inside the boiler
Fault in sparking rod
Economizer damage
Gun and spark rod setting
Gun to be not spray
Damage In diffuser plate
Air blower wheel is dismantle
Damage in coil
Flue problem
Chapter 3. PROBLEM SOLUTION OUTLINE
Here are the possible solution to solve the problem, one of which we will adopt in our project to solve the problem to improve the performance of low capacity boiler.

Solar water heater
We can improve the performance of the boiler by adding the solar water heater, in the this solution we will increase the temperature of the water by using the solar water heater, and the temperature of the boiler will be increased than the room temperature so water will be pre heated before entering into the boiler coil so technically the usage of the fuel of combustion will make more steam on same usage of fuel amount which has been used before the installing the solar water heater

FIG NO 1. SOLAR WATER HEATER
Installation & design of the air pre-heater
In this boiler the air pre-heater is absent as a important accessory, here are some major problems could occur on the absence of air pre-heater
Poor atomization of oil being fired.

Low air flow through the burner leading to unburnt particles.

Wrong tip position with respect to diffuser or spinner
Low blowing steam pressure in blower
In this boiler air pre-heater is not there that is why it cause the low performance. We will pre-heat the air of blower which is blowing air into the chamber of the boiler for combustion, so what will happen that the air will be pre heated by the air pre heater and the temperature of air will be increased than normal temperate, that high temperature air will be enter in the combustion chamber. That pre heated air will make combustion easy
Function of air pre-heater
The function of an air pre-heater is similar to that of an economizer. It recovers some portion of the waste heat of hot flue gases going to chimney, and transfers same to the fresh air before it enters the combustion chamber. Due to preheating of air, the furnace temperature increases. It results in rapid combustion of fuel with less soot, smoke and ash. The high furnace temperature can permit low grade fuel with less atmospheric pollution. The air pre-heater is placed between economizer and chimney.

Fig-2 Air Pre-heater
Chapter 4. PROBLEM SOLUTION
SOLAR WATER HEATER
We are connecting solar water heater for pre-heating the feed water.

By using solar water heater the temperature of the feed water increased by 650C from 500C.

The consumption of fuel decreased 2-3 liters/Hour.

After the calculation of efficiency 70.4% to 77.09%.

Here, we get high efficiency of boiler by adding the solar water heater.

Layout of Boiler Section and Solar Plates
Specifications Before Solar Plates After Solar Plates
Steam generation rate 300 kg/hr 300 kg/hr
Steam pressure 2.45 bar 3.45 bar
Temp of water at economizer 450 to 500c 550 to 650c
Steam temp 1100 to 1150c 1100 to 1150c
Fuel consumption(FO) 20 lit/hr 18 lit/hr
Required temp 750 to 800c 750 to 800c
Efficiency 70.40% 77.09%
Data of Boiler Before & After Solar Plates
Here is the layout of our working area

Efficiency of Boiler Before Solar Plate
Data:
m= 300 kg/hr
p= 2.45 bar
mf= 20 lit/hr
C.V of F.O. = 10500KJ/Kg
From steam table at pressure 2.45 bar
hg= 530.45 KJ/Kg
hfg=2183 KJ/Kg
assume x= 0.88
hwet = hg + x.hfg
= 530.45 + (0.88)*(2183)
= 2451.49 KJ/Kg
= 2451.49
4.1868
= 585.52 Kcal/kg
hfw at pressure 2.45 bar
= 530.45
4.1868
= 126.69 Kcal/kg
= mf
v
0.93 = m
20
mf =0.93*20
mf =18.6 kg
? = m(hwet-hfw)
mf × C.V

= 300(585.52 – 126.69)
18.6 * 10500
= 0.704
= 70%
Efficiency of Boiler After Solar Plate
Data:
m= 300 kg/hr
p= 3.45 bar
mf= 18 lit/hr
C.V of F.O. = 10500KJ/Kg
From steam table at pressure 3.45 bar
hg= 582.2 KJ/Kg
hfg=2148.85 KJ/Kg
assume x= 0.88
hwet = hg + x.hfg
= 582.2 + (0.88)*(2148.85)
= 2473.18 KJ/Kg
= 2473.18
4.1868
= 590.71 Kcal/kg
hf w at pressure 3.45 bar
= 582.2
4.1868
= 139.03 Kcal/kg
= m
v
0.93 = mf
18
mf =0.93*18
mf =16.74 kg
? = m(hwet-hfw)
mf × C.V

= 300(590.71-139.03)
16.74*10500
= 0.7709
= 77.09%
Conclusion
Estimation of solar water heater
Price of solar plate 1 solar plate having size of 8X4 ft is 10450 INR.

So, here we have installed 8 plates like that which costs 83600 INR
Total installation cost is (includes labor cost + piping cost) approx 125000 INR
Advantage
Profit after the solar water heater got installed is that we are able to save 2-3 liter of fuel (F.O) in one hour
So solar plates work 8-10 hours in day
Therefore, the saving of the fuel in a day is 16 liters
After the calculation of fuel saving 5760 liters in a year.

This is how we save 172800 INR in 1 year. So, we can get our all of the cost money back in a single year.