History of Development of Railways M-Irfan


History of Development of Railways
M-Irfan(17CE67)a
aQUEST NawabShah
1. Introduction
Rail transport and it’s roots are presenting a colorful picture around the world.Rail
transport have developed as one of the most reliable modes of transportation in terms
of safety. Rail transport is a facilitor of economic progress and is used to transport
goods as well as peoples. Train invention provides one of the most important times in
the history of human beings expansion and development. the countries in Central and
Eastern Europe, as well as those in Central Asia and the Caucasus region give a great
deal of importance to the railway transport sector is one more advantage for the
development of this mode of transport, as well as the fact that these countries focus on
the development of national and cross-border railway routes.
1.1. Facts about Railway History
? The First Train was developed in 1804, it could pulled 25 tones of iron
material and 70 peoples over the distance of 10miles.
? As the History of Train tells us that those trains were powered by steam,
electricity and deisel fuel and the earliest trains in USA was powered by
Horses that walked on treadmills.
? 1st Commercial steam train speed was recorded as 96km/hr.
? Today 40% of world’s freight cargo is transported through trains and that
amount will increase with year.
? Largest modern manufacturers of trains are Generally Electric and EMD
(Electro-Motive Diesel).
? The Longest train station is in England about 600 meters long, it is about as
large as 6 football feilds.

.

2. History of Railways
Railways History was introduced in 6th century BC in ancient greece. it is divided
into several periods defined by the materials used and the power used.
Trains are useful according to the climatic condition b/z they produce lesser
amount of CO2 . According to French Statistcs that A high speed train can generate upto
7g of CO2 per kilometer, but the Busseproduce 17g of CO2 per kilometer.
.
2.1. Ancient system
In Diolkos there is a evidence of rail transport that indicates about 6 to 8 km long paved
trackway through which they have to transport boats across the Isthmus of corinthin
greece from around 600BC, in that time those railways were pulled by men and
animals, they ran in grooves in limestone which supports track element from leaving
the intended route.
2.2. Pre-Steam
? Wooden Rails:
In 1515 Cardinal Mathaus Lang gave a discription of the Reisszug a funicular
railway at the Hohensalzburg castle in Austria. They originally used wooden rails and a
hemp haulage rope and was opertated by Human or animal power through a wheel.That
line is present nowadays and is operational in it’s updated form, and it is the oldest
operational Railway, Wagonways were used in 1550 to facilitate transport of ore tube
to the mines and after that it became popular in Europe.
? Metal Rails:
The application of steam engine led to a large increase in the production of British
iron after mid 1750’s. In century of 1760 the Coalbrookdale began to fix the plates of
cast iron to the surfaces of wooden rails. A System was also introduced through which
unflanged wheels ran on L-shapped metal plates known as plateways. John curr, a
sheffield colliery manager, discovered this unflanged rail in 1787.

Figure. 1 The tracks are plateways.
Figure. 2 smooth edgerails for wheels with flanges
2.3. Steam Power introduced
History of Train industry was developed with the exhibition of 1st steam engine, which
enabled 1st time the human being that they can transport goods and people using fast,
relaible and low cost transportation this brought a great revolution in industrial age and
economy.with the great development of railways and locomotive designs, a number of
inventors started to focus on the improvement of trains and enabling to transport goods
and peoples as fast and safe as they can.Those Steam Engines were introduced to
public in 1770s and those were invented by James Watt a scottish inventor and
Mechanical Engineer. Alot of success has got an English inventor Mathew Murray who
in 1804 developed first moving steam locomotive, twin-cylinder Salamanca locomotive
has got a lot of success by using locomotive publicly in1812. However he was not the

original inventor of steam locomotive that was used publicly, That credit goes to
George stephenson famous English Engineer who invented “Locomotion” in 1825 for
stockton and Dralington Railway in north-east England. Four years later he
accompanied Rainhill trials, it is a competation of building the best and easy
locomotive for transport of goods and peoples.

Figure. 3 The Salamanca locomotive

Figure. 4 Steam Locomotive at Darlington

2.4. Electric Power Introduced
Chemist Robert Davidson was the first to invent Electric locomotive in 1837 in
Scotland and it was given power by cells. And it was also the recent battery electric
locomotive.Davidson later discover a bigger locomotive known as Galvani, exhibited
at theRoyal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841.This Electric Locomotive uses
electric motors to drive the wheels.The Major disadvantage of Electric Locomotive is
that they use high worth of infrastructure over-headed Lines and third Rail.
Figure. 5 Electric Locomotive

Now a days Electric locomotive is given below which is used in this century.
Figure. 6 Electric Locomotive
Figure. 7 Electric Engine
2.5. High Speed Rail
High speed rails are mostly faster than classic Rails. Rail tracks are espacially laid for
those rails.There minimum speed is upto 250km/hr. Since in early days speed was the
major factor in this type of traffic.and those high speed experiments were taken placed
in Germany in 1899.after four years Expermenting rails got speed of 210.2km/hr, but
this sort of train was not taken into consideration for public use. “Fliegender
Hamburger” the name of train was used in 1933 on the rail road b/w Hamburgur and
Berlin with it’s maximum speed of 160km/hr. When the steam-powered Henschel-
Wegmann Train was started it’s speed was 160km/hr but due to World war II it was
stopped that. At that time United states started their own High speed trains.In 1935 A

Steam Locomotive was introduced namely the Morning Hiawatha service that can
achieve 160km/hr speed regularly.when the world war II was ended, a new and high
score was created which was about 300km/hr. Nowadays The maximum speed of High
Speed Rail is upto 572km/hr which is made by Japan.
Figure. 8 The High Speed Rail

3. Rail-Transport in Pakistan
Karachi was considered as a sea port in the era of mid 19th century.and sir Henry
Edward was appointed as a commissioner after it’s incorporration with bombay in1847
got permit from Lord Dalhousi to start the survey of sea port at karachi. Along with it
He also stated the survey for Railway transport line in1858.
Pakistan railway was founded in 1861 and it’s headquarter is in Lahore. There is a
track across pakistan from city (Torkham) to karachi of 4800 miles (7,791) km and
operates passenger service and also freight. Pakistan Rail transport were also known as
Pakistan western railway from 1947 to 1974. Around 1954 The Rail line was expanded
to Mardan and Charsada. Chine-Pakistan economic corridor also upgrade the Pakistan
Railways and they are going to spend RS886.68billion through Ministry of
Railways.The first phase is completed in 2017 and second phase would complete in
2021.The Plans are given below;
? New Locomotives
? Development of Rail infrastructure
? Increase in Train speed
? Expansion of Passenger service
The Pakistan Railway has 190 working Deisel electric locomotives. In January 2016,
the railway holders ordered 800 Hooper wagons from Jinah Railway Vehicles.The first
205 wagons will be manufectured in China, and the remaining 595 wagons will be
assembled at the Moghalpura Railway Workshops in Pakistan. The wagons will carry
coal toPower Stations in Karachi and Qadirabad. Karachi Kotri section of Railway-
Line is considered as the largest railway yard of Pakistan in addition to 80 tracks that
move parallel to each other near by Pakistan steel mill.
Figure. 9 The Oldest Train in Pakistan

Figure. 10 Map of Karachi Kotri Track
In 1957, 29 Tankers of an oil train crashed b/w Meting and Bholari Stations. The Fire
caused due to that accident remained for three days.
3.1. Manufecturing
The Pakistan’s Locomotive factory was constructed in Risalpur in 1993 at a worth of
229 million.
Figure. 11 Pakistan Railways Locomotive

3.2. Lines
The Pakistan Railway Network is divided into Main Line and Branch Lines. The
Karachi-Peshawar line is considered as the main north-south line, and the Rohri-
Chaman line is considered as the main east-west line. And The Branch Lines are given
below;
? Hyderabad Badin
? Lahore Wagah
? Wazirabad Narowal etc,

3.3. Tracks
There is a track of 11,881 Kilometers or 7,383miles in Pakistan Railways. Pakistan
Railway uses the Broad Guages of 5’6″ or 1,676mm except for some industrial lines.
The Track load bearing capacity limit is upto 22.86 tonnes. And only Rohri Chaman
Line’s is of 17.78tonnes. The maximum speed of trains on most of lines is 120 km/hr
Karachi peshawar line allows speed upto 130km/hr.
Figure. 12 Rawalpindi Station Tracks