Diabetes and obesity are the two chronic disorders that are on the increase globally


Diabetes and obesity are the two chronic disorders that are on the increase globally (Abdullah et al., 2014). Insulin resistance and diabetes has a strong connection with body mass index. The amount of NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids), glycerol, hormones, cytokines, pro-inflam¬matory elements, and other elements that are involved in the development of insulin resistance increase in fold in an obese individual (Abdullah et al., 2014). Reduction in ?-cell function, gaining weight early in life and insulin resistance leads to the development of diabetes especially type 1 (Abdullah et al., 2014).
It has been documented that certain levels of vitamins (vitamin D and vitamin A); have important effects on the metabolic rate of glucose, as a result triggering insulin sensitivity (Danescu et al., 2009). Vitamin D has in recent times been linked with a number of the factors known to be responsible for development of type 2 Diabetes mellitus, pancreatic cell function insufficiency and insulin sensitivity. Similarly, the work carried out by Danescu et al in 2009 showed that augmented vitamin D intake by infants may decrease the risk of the development of type 1 Diabetes mellitus and probably also of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may also improve the metabolic control of diabetic state (Danescu et al., 2009) and most important to inducing fatty acid metabolism and deposition, in the long run leading to obesity (Mohamed et al., 2014). Irrespective of Vitamin A level (excess or deficiency) have also documented to have intense effects on the overall body mechanism particularly in fatty acid metabolism. It has been shown both in human and mice that oxidative stress and obesity have links (Soltys et al., 2001), which bring about disorders in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (Kumar et al., 1999). Nevertheless, a study carried out on on obese Wistal rats revealed that retinoic acid (the carboxylic acid form of vitamin A) had an ameliorative influence on adipose tissue biology and energy stability mechanism system through controlling expression of genes in control of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (Mohamed et al., 2014).
Amongst the concerned effects of obesity is the increased prevalence of diabetes, of which 60% can be traced to weight gain (James et al., 2003). Presently, there are now roughly one billion people globally who are overweight or obese, compared with 850 million whom are persistently underweight (Yach et al., 2006). Since it was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content hinge on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Grineva et al., 2013) and that certain antioxidant vitamins are found reduced in diabetic subjects (Valdes-Ramos et al., 2015) in some areas of the world, this study will therefore help understand the serum influence of vitamin A and D on obesity in diabetic obese subjects in Warri metropolis and to relate their levels in the management of obese diabetes in this region. To the best of our knowledge, there is no documentary evidence of any research carried out on the levels of vitamin A and D in diabetic obese in Warri metropolis in particular and Nigeria in general.

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