DATE


DATE: Thursday 1st March,2018.

NAME: De Avion Daniel
STUDENT ID: 816006255
TITLE: Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids
AIM:
INTRODUCTION:
Saccharides or carbs, commonly known as Carbohydrates are a molecule that consists of three atoms; Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. CITATION Wik185 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018) Their primary function is to supply energy as they are converted to fuel within the cell. It is one of the major food groups and a key form of energy for most of living organisms. Monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides are the three various types of carbohydrates. It is known that carbohydrates are vital in our nutrition and can be classified as simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates produce rapid source of energy but are not long lasting therefore consumer feels hungry quick while complex carbohydrates are long lasting. CITATION Chr17 l 11273 (Nordqvist 2017)
SIMPLE Monosaccharides Disaccharides
COMPLEX Polysaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest or smallest possible sugar unit, therefore, making them unable to hydrolyse into simpler compounds, for example glucose. Monosaccharides are generally colourless, water soluble and crystalline solids. CITATION Wik186 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018) They are considered the building blocks for disaccharides.
Disaccharides are a combination of two monosaccharide molecules, for examples lactose. They are generally soluble in water and are generated by a condensation reaction. CITATION Wik187 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018)
Lastly, polysaccharides are long chains of two or more monosaccharide molecules bounded together, for example glycogen. CITATION Chr17 l 11273 (Nordqvist 2017)3505200-546100Complex Carbohydrates:
Whole grain food
Cereals
Legumes
Vegetables
00Complex Carbohydrates:
Whole grain food
Cereals
Legumes
Vegetables
295275-603250Simple Carbohydrates:
Table sugar, Honey,
Soft drinks, Jam, Syrup fruits, Candy, Milk
0Simple Carbohydrates:
Table sugar, Honey,
Soft drinks, Jam, Syrup fruits, Candy, Milk

Amino acids are compounds that contain amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups, along with (R group) side chains distinct to the amino acid. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are the key elements of amino acids. CITATION Wik1810 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018).
They are the building blocks of proteins and are therefore found within proteins. The biological role of a protein is determined by the chemical properties of the amino acid that is within. Up to 20 amino acids can be produced by the body while the others are received from food. CITATION The03 l 11273 (The Biology Project 2003)
Proteins are large molecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acids. CITATION Wik189 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018) Each cell contains countless amounts of different proteins which together, enables the cell to carry out a specific job. CITATION Chr171 l 11273 (Nordqvist, Medical News Today 2017) They carry out a vast selection of functions within an organism: DNA replication, stimuli response, acting as enzymes ( for example amylase), building and repairing ( for example tissues) , they can be hormonal (for example insulin) and also transporting molecules, just to name a few. CITATION Wik188 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018) There are four different levels of structural proteins:
PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY QUATERNARY Conformations and conformational changes are used to describe tertiary and quaternary structures and the transitions between them. These changes arise due to the binding of substrate molecule to an enzyme’s active site. CITATION Wik1811 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018)Furthermore, coinciding with tertiary structures, proteins can be divided into three main classes: CITATION Wik189 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018)GLOBULAR Soluble (enzymes) which catalyse chemical reactions. They also act on other proteins by adding or removing chemical groups.

FIBROUS Structural (collagen for example)
MEMBRANE Receptors or impart channels for polar or charged molecules to pass through cell membrane.
While our body can make certain proteins, protein rich foods like meat, milk and eggs provide amino acids to the body which it then uses to synthesize proteins.

Aldehydes are organic compounds which consists of a carbonyl centre that is bonded to a hydrogen, an R group and a double bonded to oxygen (?CHO). CITATION Wik10 l 11273 (Wikipedia 10)Aldehydes are highly reactive, and part take in numerous reactions, for example oxidation and reduction. CITATION Wik10 l 11273 (Wikipedia 10) They contribute to sweet aroma and distinct colours therefore, can be found in perfume fragrances and natural synthetic hormones. CITATION Stu18 l 11273 (Study.com: Aldehyde n.d.)Ketones are organic compounds which consists of a carbonyl centre that is double bonded to oxygen and to two R groups which entails an array of carbon containing substituents. Ketones carry out organic reactions, like nucleophilic addition. CITATION Wik1812 l 11273 (Wikipedia 2018)Sugars can be classified as simple or complex and reducing and non-reducing sugar. A reducing sugar is a sugar that has a free aldehyde or ketone whereas a non-reducing sugar does not have a free aldehyde or ketone. Consequently, reducing sugars posses the ability to donate electrons to other molecules, changing the colour and taste of food. CITATION Lau18 l 11273 (Foist n.d.)191452511303000390525142240 Reducing sugar
Polysaccharides
Oligosaccharides
Monosaccharides
00 Reducing sugar
Polysaccharides
Oligosaccharides
Monosaccharides

Non-reducing sugar
2133600264160Disaccharides
0Disaccharides

Molish Test
PROCEDURE:
RESULTS:
TABLE 1 SHOWING MOLISH TEST
COMPOUND
OBSERVATION
Blank (water) No visible reaction was seen
Arabinose Solution changed from colourless to lilac
Glucose Solution changed from colourless to lilac
Maltose Solution changed from colourless pale-yellow green
Starch Solution changed from colourless to lilac
Sucrose Solution changed from colourless to red violet
TABLE 2 SHOWING BENEDICT’S TEST
CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE
OBSERVATION
0 M (blank) No observation seen
0.001 M Solution remained blue (unchanged)
0.01 M Solution changed from blue to blue green
0.02 M Solution changed from blue to light green
0.05 M Solution changed from blue to yellow brown
0.01 M Solution changed from blue to lime green
TABLE 3 SHOWING SELIWANOFF’S TEST
COMPOUND
Glucose Fructose
OBSERVATION/INFERENCE No visible reaction seen, remained colourless. Therefore, ketones not present, reassuring aldehyde group present. Colour change from light yellow to a red precipitate being formed. Therefore, ketones present in fructose.

TABLE 4 SHOWING BARFOED’S TEST
COMPOUND
OBERVATION
Blank (water) Solution remained unchanged. No visible reaction was seen
Fructose Colour change occurred from light blue to dark blue
Glucose Colour change occurred from light blue to dark blue
Maltose Colour change to light blue was observed
Sucrose Solution remained unchanged. No visible reaction was seen
TALBE 5 SHOWING BIAL’S TEST
COMPOUND OBSERVATION
Blank (water) Solution remained yellow, no visible reaction was seen
Arabinose Colour observed as solution changed from yellow to dark green
Glucose Solution remained yellow, no visible reaction was seen
Gum Arabic Colour change from yellow to yellow green was seen
TABLE 6 SHOWING IODINE TEST
COMPOUND Starch Glycogen Dextrin
OBSERVATION Dark brown solution was formed Yellow brown solution was formed Test was not performed
TABLE 7 SHOWING ACID HYDROLYSIS OF SUCROSE
BENEDICT’S TEST SELIWANOFF’S TEST
HYDROLYSATE A yellow precipitate was formed Red solution appeared. Therefore, ketones present.

SUCROSE A blue- green precipitate was formed Pink solution was observed. Therefore, aldoses present.
TABLE 8 SHOWING SUDAN AND EMULSION TEST
OBSERVATION
SUDAN III Formation of orange-red solution seen with oil droplets in mixture.

EMULSION Cloudy white precipitate formed at the bottom of tube.

TABLE 9 SHOWING BIURET TEST
COMPOUND Water (Blank) Albumin Urea
OBSERVATION No observable reaction, solution remained blue Solution changed to lilac Solution changed to pink
TABLE 10 SHOWING NINHYDRIN TEST
AMINO ACID COLOUR
X 73279083820Colour less Purple
Y 74104580010Colourless Purple
Z 73152078105Colourless Yellow
PRECIPTANT TCA Ammonium sulphate HCL NaOH Copper sulphate Lead acetate Ice cold ethanol
OBSERVATION White precipitate formed Solution was clear.

No precipitate formed.
Bubbles seen at the surface of solution White insoluble precipitate formed No precipitate formed White precipitate formed White insouble precipitate formed No visible reaction occurred. No precipitate formed.
TABLE 11 SHOWING PROTIEN REACTIONS
DISCUSSION:
Molish Test
Water, Arabinose, Glucose, Maltose, Starch and Sucrose were tested. Molish test contains concentrated sulfuric acid, carbohydrates loss water in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid.