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2.8. Human Trafficking In Africa
A review of existing literature indicates that individual characteristics such as gender, socio economic status education, employment and personal aspiration related to an individual’s lively of being trafficked. The first evidenced of UN employment came not from statistical data but from reports about the appearance in various towns of people who obviously has no jobs. They came in increasing numbers, and lived in shantytowns in desperation and poverty. Street children as beggary who simply work on the stretch but are without families or homes are increasing in number in substandard Africa major cites irregular migration as well as trafficking young boy’s and girl’s was stimulated and indemnified by worsening youth unemployment and rapidly deteriorating socio economic condition and poverty (Annan, 2006)
The research reviewed focuses primarily on how the economic environment in people’s home communities contributes to their vulnerability to trafficking. However, some mention of other community or environmental characteristics may be important. This includes the lack of protected services for children trading to escape an abusive home, employer, or early marriage (Masudi, 2001). The vulnerability of working and abusive home, employer may be compounded by the fed and sometimes inability to reform home or to access support after migrating.
2.9. Causes of Human Trafficking in Ethiopia
As Gudetu (2013) state the cause of human trafficking states as it was the corrupt mode of human migration. Human migration cannot stop, but human trafficking can be. Even if there is no single country that succeeded in stopping human trafficking. Women’s unemployment and underemployment could partially be associated to their low level of education, and it encourages the process of human trafficking. It is an overt truth that women’s educational attainment was directly related to their better status in the society. As it can also be observed from the profile, of labour and social affair of Dodola woreda the number of the educational attainment of women out-migrates is low. Hence, poverty because of poor employment and unemployment is one area that exposed women to trafficking. Dishonest agents who claim to have established contacts with employers oversees process trafficking. These agents were place victims of trafficking in exploitative conditions (Gudatu, 2013:239).
Economic factors are also causes of migration to the Middle East. Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (2014), Fransen & Kuschminder (2009), Baker & Aina (1995), Atnafu (2006) presented economic factors as the main driving force for Ethiopian youth migration to the Middle East. For local communities of Ethiopia, migration is the only viable option for alleviating their poverty.
Many youths of Ethiopia migrate to boost their material gains Selamawit, B (2013) states the factors that cause Trafficking as “People fall victim to trafficking for many reasons. Although the root causes of trafficking vary from country to country, there are however many factors that tend to be common to trafficking in general according to US Department of State (2012) report. Social, economic and political factors are major driving forces. Socially marginalized, economically deprived and poverty stricken individuals are primary victims of trafficking through deception and coercion.”
2.9.1. Cultural practices, belief systems and behaviors of communities where trafficking exists
Across the world, numerous belief systems, cultural patterns and practices affect potential human trafficking victims. An example of a cultural belief that was found to impose subjection was a study done on child trafficking in Thailand, where it was found that a typical belief pattern was for families to view their children as being responsible for helping to provide for the family through means of income, household help, and community labor (Taylor, 2005:413). In the developing world, it is typical to find a lack of accessible resources so parents was readily assign responsibility to their children in the allocation of care concerning “each child’s perceived potential economic, social and reproductive returns” (Taylor, 2005:414). A child’s birth order and sex are determinates of whether they are deemed as a helper child, particularly for the firstborn daughter. The common belief is that daughters are responsible for the welfare of the family especially their younger siblings and seeing to the well-being of their elderly parents (Taylor, 2005).